The right of asylum in Christian churches on the basis of some imperial constitutions of the 4th and 5th century

Authors

  • Rosa Mentxaka University of Pais Vasco (Spain)

Keywords:

right of asylum, imperial constitutions, 4th-5th-centuries

Abstract

Already in late Christian antiquity, the right of asylum was presented with a characteristic common to the institution throughout its legal history and which is also present in the current law, that is, the fact of being a law that is constantly “evolving”, as can be inferred from the case we are going to study, on the one hand, because of the juridical answer that the Roman and Byzantine political authorities were able to articulate on the basis of the economic, social and political problems of each time, and, on the other hand, because of the fact that the subsequent regulation should not necessarily be considered as positive, if we understand as such the fact that it improves the previous one; unfortunately, we will see that this law with its permanently mutable character, its evolution according to the conjunctures, can also include elements that are a step backwards in the recognition and the exercise of it.

 

Keywords: right of asylum; imperial constitutions; 4th-5th centuries.

References

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
</head>
<body>
<p>Bagnall, Roger S. <em>Egypt in Late Antiquity. </em>Princeton, 1993.</p>
<p>Bahramy, Abdollah. <em>Le droit d&rsquo;asile. </em>Paris, 1938.</p>
<p>Barnard, Leslie W. <em>The council of Serdica 343 A. D</em>. Sofia, 1983.</p>
<p>Barone-Adesi, Giorgio. &ldquo;Servi fugitivi in ecclesia. Indirizzi cristiani e legislazione imperiale.&rdquo; <em>AARC,</em> <em>VIII Convegno Internazionale</em>. Napoli (1990): 695-741.</p>
<p>Bearzot, Cinzia. &Prime;Panellenismo e <em>asylia</em> in et&agrave; classica: il caso dell&rsquo;Elide.&Prime; <em>Das antike Asyl: Kultische Grundlagen, rechtliche Ausgestaltung und politische Funktion. </em>Ed. Dreher, M. K&ouml;ln (2003): 37-58.</p>
<p>Berger, Albrecht. <em>Konstantinopel. Geschichte. Topographie. Religion</em>. Stuttgart, 2011.</p>
<p>Berger, Albrecht. &Prime;Konstantinopel.&Prime; <em>RAC</em> 21. Stuttgart (2006): 435-483</p>
<p>Beyer, Hermann W., and Karpp, Heinrich. &Prime;Bischof.&Prime; <em>RAC </em>2 (1954): 394-407.</p>
<p>Biondi, Biondo. <em>Diritto romano cristiano. II. La giustizia - Le Persone</em>. Milano, 1952.</p>
<p>Biondi, Biondo.<em> La famiglia. Rapporti patrimoniali. Diritto pubblico</em>. Milano, 1954.</p>
<p>Biondi, Biondo. <em>Il diritto romano cristiano. 1. Orientamento religioso della legislazione</em>, Milano, 1952.</p>
<p>Bissell, Allen P. <em>The law of asylum in Israel</em> <em>historically and critically examined.</em> Leipzig, 1884.</p>
<p>Bl&aacute;zquez, Jos&eacute; Mar&iacute;a. &ldquo;El cristianismo religi&oacute;n oficial del Imperio.&rdquo; <em>Historia </em>16 (1997): 56-65.</p>
<p>Bl&eacute;teau, Auguste. <em>Des &eacute;diles en droit romain. De l&rsquo;asile et du droit d&rsquo;expulsion en droit francais.These pour le doctorat. </em>Paris (1886): 169-217.</p>
<p>Bueno Delgado, Juan A. <em>La legislaci&oacute;n religiosa en la compilaci&oacute;n justinianea</em>. Madrid, 2015.</p>
<p>Caron, Pier G. &Prime;Asile et hospitalit&eacute; dans le droit de l'&Eacute;glise primitive.&Prime; <em>RIDA </em>10 (1963): 194-197.</p>
<p>Caron, Pier G. &ldquo;Asilo. Diritto canonico e diritto pubblico statuale, medioevale e moderno.&rdquo; <em>NNDI</em> 1 (1958): 1036-1039.</p>
<p>Crotarosa Scipioni, Noemi. &ldquo;Diritto d&rsquo;Asilo.&rdquo; <em>Enciclopedia Cattolica</em> 2. Ciudad del Vaticano (1949): 136-139.</p>
<p>De Beaurepaire, Charles. &Prime;Essai sur l&rsquo;asile religieux dans l&rsquo;empire romain et la monarchie fran&ccedil;aise.&Prime; <em>Biblioth&egrave;que de l'&Eacute;cole des chartes</em> 14 (1853): 351-375</p>
<p>De Beaurepaire, Charles.<em> Essai sur l&rsquo;asile religieux dans l&rsquo;empire romain et la monarchie fran&ccedil;aise. </em>Paris, 1854.</p>
<p>de Churruca, Juan, and Mentxaka, Rosa. <em>Introducci&oacute;n hist&oacute;rica al Derecho Romano</em>, Bilbao, 2015.</p>
<p>De Lucas, Javier. &ldquo;Sobre el proceso de vaciamiento del derecho de asilo por parte de los Estados de la UE.&rdquo; <em>Ars Iuris Salmanticensis</em> 4 (2016): 21-27.</p>
<p>Delmaire, Roland. <em>Largesses sacr&eacute;es et Res Privata: l'aerarium imp&eacute;rial et son administration du IVe. au VIe. </em><em>Si&egrave;cle</em>. Paris, 1989.</p>
<p>Demandt, Alexander. <em>Die Sp&auml;tantike, R&ouml;mische Geschichte von Diocletian bis Justinian</em>, 284-565 n. Ch.. M&uuml;nchen, 1989.</p>
<p>Di Paola, Lucietta. &ldquo;Vescovi, notabili e governatori nella corrispondenza di Teodoreto di Cirro.&rdquo; <em>Le trasformazioni delle &eacute;lites in et&agrave; tardoantica</em>. Ed. Lizzi Testa, R. Roma (2006): 155-176.</p>
<p>Dreher, Martin. &Prime;Das Asyl in der Antike von seinem griechieschen Urspr&uuml;ngen bis zur christlichen Sp&auml;tantike.&ldquo; <em>TYCHE</em> 11 (1996): 76-96.</p>
<p>Dreher, Martin. <em>Das antike Asyl. Kultische Grundlagen, rechtliche Ausgestaltung und politische Funktion. </em>Wien, 2003.</p>
<p>Ducloux, Anne. &Prime;L'Eglise, l'asile et l'aide aux condamn&eacute;s d'apr&egrave;s la constitution du 27 juillet 398.&Prime; <em>RHDFE</em> 69 (1991): 143-144.</p>
<p>Ducloux, Anne. <em>Ad ecclesiam confugere. </em><em>Naissance du droit d&rsquo;asile dans les &eacute;glises</em>. Paris, 1994.</p>
<p>Ensslin, Wilhem. <em>Die Religionspolitik des Kaisers Th. des Grossen</em>, (SBAW 1953,2). M&uuml;nchen (1953): 5-27.</p>
<p>Escribano Pa&ntilde;o, Mar&iacute;a Victoria. &ldquo;Curias y curiales en el siglo IV d. C.: Opulenti a la curia, Pauperes a la Iglesia.&rdquo; <em>Senados municipales y decuriones en el Occidente romano. </em>Sevilla (2013): 437-459.</p>
<p>Escribano, Mar&iacute;a. Victoria. &ldquo;La quema de libros her&eacute;ticos en el <em>Codex Theodosianus</em> XVI.&rdquo; <em>Ilu. </em><em>Revista de Ciencias de las Religiones</em> 19 (2007): 175-200.</p>
<p>Falchi, Gian Luigi. &ldquo;La tradizione giustinianea del materiale teodosiano (C.Th. XVI).&rdquo; <em>Studia et documenta historiae et iuris </em>57 (1991): 1-123.</p>
<p>Fern&aacute;ndez Ubi&ntilde;a, Jos&eacute;. &ldquo;Constantino y el triunfo del cristianismo en el Imperio Romano.&rdquo; <em>Historia del Cristianismo. 1. El mundo Antiguo. </em>Madrid (2003): 329-397.</p>
<p>Frankfurter, David. &ldquo;Christianity and paganism, I: Egypt.&rdquo; <em>The Cambridge History of Christianity, Constantine to c. 600</em>. Eds. Casiday, A., and Norris, F. W. Cambridge (2008): 183-185.</p>
<p>Frend, William Hug C. &ldquo;The christian period in Mediterranean Africa, c. ad 200 to 700.&rdquo; <em>The Cambridge history of Africa</em>.Vol. II. (1978): 410-489.</p>
<p>Frend, William Hug C. <em>Martyrdom and Persecution in the Early Church. A study of a conflict from the Maccabees to Donatus</em>. New York, 1967.</p>
<p>Freyburger, Gerard. &Prime;Le droit d&rsquo;asile &agrave; Rome.&Prime; <em>LEC</em> 60 (1992): 139-151.</p>
<p>Fuld, Leonard. &Prime;Das Asylrecht im Altertum und Mittelalter.&Prime; <em>Zeitschrift f&uuml;r vergleichende Rechtsweissensachft</em> 7 (1887): 102-197.</p>
<p>Gaddis, Michael. &ldquo;The political Church Religion and State.&rdquo; <em>Companion to Late Antiquity</em>. Oxford (2009): 512-524.</p>
<p>Gamauf, Richard. <em>Ad statuam licet confugere. </em><em>Untersuchungen zum Asylrecht im r&ouml;mischen Prinzipat. </em>Frankfurt, 1999.</p>
<p>Gaudemet, Jean. <em>La formation du droit s&eacute;culier et du droit de l'&eacute;glise aux Ive. et Ve. </em><em>Si&egrave;cles</em>. Paris, 1979.</p>
<p>Gioffredi, Carlo. &ldquo;Ad statuas confugere.&rdquo; <em>SDHI</em> 12 (1946): 187-193.</p>
<p>Grashof, Otto. &Prime;Die Gesetze der r&ouml;mischen Kaiser &uuml;ber das Asylrecht der Kirche.&Prime; <em>Archiv f&uuml;r katholisches Kirchenrecht</em> 37 (1877): 3-19.</p>
<p>Gregory, Timothy E. <em>A history of Byzantium</em>. Oxford, 2005.</p>
<p>Haas, Christopher J. <em>Alexandria in Late Antiquity: Topography and Social Conflict</em>. Baltimore, 1997.</p>
<p>Harries, Jill. <em>Law and Empire in the late antiquity</em>. Cambridge, 2004.</p>
<p>Helfrecht, Johann Theodor B. <em>Historische Abhandlung von den Asylen. </em>Hof, 1801.</p>
<p>Henssler, Ortwin. &Prime;Asylrecht.&Prime; <em>Handw&ouml;rterbuch zur deutschen Rechtsgeschichte</em> 1 (1971): 243-246.</p>
<p>Henssler, Ortwin. &Prime;Formen des Asylrechts und ihre Verbreitung bei den Germanen.&Prime; <em>Frankfurter Wissenschaftliche Beitr&auml;ge</em> 8 (1954): 12-24.</p>
<p>Herman, Emil. &Prime;Zum Asylrecht im byzantinischen Reich.&Prime; <em>Orientalia christ. Periodica</em> (1935): 204-238</p>
<p>Herman, Emil. &Prime;Zum Asylrecht im byzantinischen Reich.&Prime; <em>Christiana Periodica</em> 1 (1935): 208-209.</p>
<p>Hermann, Johannes. &Prime;Cod. Theod. 9,45: De his, qui ad ecclesias confugiunt.&Prime; <em>Beitr&auml;ge zur Rechtsgeschichte. Ged&auml;chtnisschrift f&uuml;r Hermann Conrad</em>. Zurich (1979): 271-282.</p>
<p>Heumann, Hermann, and Seckel, Emil. <em>Handlexikon zu den Quellen des r&ouml;mischen Rechts</em>. Graz, 1971.</p>
<p>Humfress, Caroline. &ldquo;Law and Custom under Rome.&rdquo; <em>Custom in the Middle Ages. </em>London (2012): 23-47.</p>
<p>Humfress, Caroline. <em>Ortodoxy</em> <em>and the Courts in Late Antiquity</em>. Oxford, 2007.</p>
<p>Jedin, Hubert. <em>Einleitung in die Kirchengeschichte. </em>Wien, 1965.</p>
<p>Jones Hall, Linda. <em>Roman Berytus. Beirut in Late Antiquity</em>. New York, 2004.</p>
<p>Kaser, Max. <em>Das r&ouml;mische Privatrecht. 2. Die Nachklassischen Entwicklungen</em>. M&uuml;nchen, 1975.</p>
<p>Kaser, Max, and Hackl, Karl. <em>Das R&ouml;mische Zivilprozessrecht</em>. M&uuml;nchen, 1996.</p>
<p>Keresztes, Paul. <em>Imperial Rome and the Christians. Vol II. From the Severi to Constantine the Great. </em>London, 1989.</p>
<p>Kiel Freytag, Ariane. <em>Aufst&auml;nde in Konstantinopel (330-602</em>). <em>Tesis doctoral original de la facultad de Filosof&iacute;a de la E. K</em>. Univerist&auml;t T&uuml;bingen.</p>
<p>Klein, Richard. &Prime;Die Ermordung der Philosophin Hypatia. Zur Kampf um die politische Macht in Alexandria.&Prime; <em>Atti dell'Accademia Romanistica Costantiniana</em>. <em>XI Convegno internazinale in onore di Felix B. J. Wubbe</em>. Napoli (1996): 509-524.</p>
<p>Kroeschell, Karl. &Prime;Asylrecht.&Prime; <em>Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde 1</em>. New York (1973): 460-463.</p>
<p>Landau, Peter. &Prime;Asylrecht III. Alte Kirche und Mittelalter.&Prime; <em>TRE</em> 4 (1979): 319-327.</p>
<p>Langenfeld, Hans.<em> Christianisierungspolitik und Sklavengesetzgebung der r&ouml;mischen Kaiser von Konstantin bis Theodosius II. </em>Bonn, 1977.</p>
<p>Lantero, Caroline. &Prime;La France et le droit d'asile.&Prime; <em>La Revue du Centre Michel de l'Hospital</em> 13 (2018): 7-41.</p>
<p>Lapin, Hayim. <em>Theodosio</em>. Barcelona, 2008.</p>
<p>Le Bras, Gabriel. &Prime;Asile.&Prime; <em>Dictionnaire d&rsquo;histoire et de g&eacute;ographie eccl&eacute;siastiques</em> 4 (1930): 1035-1047.</p>
<p>Liebenam, Wilhelm. <em>St&auml;dteverwalutng im r&ouml;mischen Kaiserreich</em>. Leipzig, 1900.</p>
<p>Lizzi Testa, Rita. &ldquo;The late antique bishop: Image and Reality.&rdquo; <em>Companion to Late Antiquity</em>. Malden (2009): 525-538.</p>
<p>Longo, Giannetto. <em>Delictum e crimen</em>. Milano, 1976.</p>
<p>Manfredini, Arrigo Diego. &ldquo;Ad ecclesiam confugere, ad statuas confugere nell&rsquo;et&agrave; di Teodosio I.&rdquo; <em>AARC,</em> <em>VI Convegno internazionale. </em>Perugia (1986): 39-58.</p>
<p>Manfredini, Arrigo Diego. &ldquo;Debitori pubblici e privati in ecclesiam confugientes da Teodosio a Giustiniano.&rdquo; <em>RDR</em> 2 (2002): 308-309.</p>
<p>Manfredini, Arrigo Diego. &ldquo;Taluni asetti del <em>logos asylias</em> nelle fonti giustinianee.&rdquo; <em>Das Antike asyl. Kultische Grundlagen, rechtliche Ausgestaltung und politische Funktion</em>. Ed. Dreher, M. Wien (2003): 237-262.</p>
<p>Martindale, John R. <em>The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire. </em>Vol. II. Cambridge, 1980.</p>
<p>Martroye, Fran&ccedil;ois. &Prime;L&rsquo;asile et la l&eacute;gislation imperial du IVe. au VIe. Si&egrave;cle.&Prime; <em>M&eacute;moires de la Societ&eacute; National des Antiquaires de France</em> 75 (1919): 159-246.</p>
<p>Melluso, Marco. &ldquo;In tema di servi fugitivi in ecclesia&nbsp;in epoca giustinianea. Le Bullae Sanctae Sophiae.&rdquo; <em>Dialogues d&rsquo;histoire ancienne</em> 28/1 (2002): 76-77.</p>
<p>Mentxaka, Rosa. &ldquo;El derecho de asilo en la antig&uuml;edad cl&aacute;sica, en particular en el Derecho Romano.&rdquo; <em>Cristianismo y mundo romano. V y VI ciclos de conferencias sobre el mundo cl&aacute;sico</em>. Ed. Tamayo, J. A. Bilbao (2011): 171-191.</p>
<p>Mentxaka, Rosa. &ldquo;Los requisitos para acceder a las magistraturas locales con base en los escritos de los juristas cl&aacute;sicos.&rdquo; <em>Veleia</em> 28 (2011): 35-41.</p>
<p>Mommsen, Theodor. <em>R&ouml;misches Strafrecht</em>. Leipzig, 1899.</p>
<p>Mu&ntilde;oz Auni&oacute;n, Antonio. <em>La pol&iacute;tica com&uacute;n europea del derecho de asilo</em>. Valencia, 2006.</p>
<p>Garc&iacute;a Mahamut, Rosario, and Galparsoro, Javier. <em>R&eacute;gimen jur&iacute;dico del derecho de asilo en la ley 12-2009</em>. Madrid, 2010.</p>
<p>N&ouml;rr, Dieter. &Prime;Zur Entstehung der gewohnheitsrechtlichen Theorie.&Prime; <em>Festschrift f&uuml;r W Felgentraeger zum 70. Geburtstag. </em>G&ouml;ttingen (1969): 353-366.</p>
<p>N&ouml;rr, Dieter. <em>Divisio und Partitio. Bemerkungen zur r&ouml;mischen Rechtsquellenlehre und zur antiken Wissenschaftstheorie</em>. Berlin, 1972.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p>
<p>Osaba Garc&iacute;a, Esperanza. &ldquo;Art&iacute;culo 14: El derecho de asilo. Importancia actual del &uacute;ltimo reducto para huir de la persecuci&oacute;n.&rdquo; <em>La declaraci&oacute;n universal de los derechos humanos: ayer, hoy y ma&ntilde;ana</em>. Pamplona (2012): 277-290.</p>
<p>Rapp, Claudia. <em>Holy Bishops in late Antiquity. The nature of Christian leadership in an age of transition</em>. Berkely (2005): 257-258.</p>
<p>Rico Aldave, Hip&oacute;lito. <em>El Derecho de Asilo en la Cristiandad. Fuentes hist&oacute;rico jur&iacute;dicas</em>. Pamplona, 2005.</p>
<p>Sabw Kanyang, Jean Anatole. <em>Episcopus et plebs. L&rsquo;&eacute;v&ecirc;que et la communaut&eacute; eccl&eacute;siale dans les conciles africains (345-525). </em>Bern (2000): 119-190.</p>
<p>Santolaya Machetti, Pablo. <em>El derecho de asilo en la constituci&oacute;n espa&ntilde;ola</em>. Valladolid, 2001.</p>
<p>Schiemann, Gottfried. &Prime;Crimen.&Prime; <em>Der Neue Pauly, Enzyclop&auml;die der Antike</em>, <em>DNP</em>. Vol. 3. Stuttgart (1997): 221-223.</p>
<p>Schmiedel, Burkhard. <em>Consuetudo im klassischen und nachklassischen r&ouml;mischen Recht</em>, <em>Forschungen zum r&ouml;mischen Recht</em> 22. Graz-K&ouml;ln, 1966.</p>
<p>Schreiner, Peter. <em>Konstantinopel. Geschichte und Arch&auml;ologie</em>. M&uuml;nchen, 2015.</p>
<p>Schubert, Werner. &Prime;Die rechtliche Sonderstellung der Dekurionen (Kurialen) in der Kaisergesetzgebung des 4-6. Jahrhunderts.&Prime; <em>ZSS</em> 86 (1969): 287-333.</p>
<p>Shaw, Brent. D. &ldquo;The elders of Christian Africa.&rdquo; <em>Rulers, Nomads and Christians in roman north Africa</em>. Brookfield (1995): 211-241.</p>
<p>Siebold, Martin. <em>Das Asylrecht der r&ouml;mischen Kirche mit besonderer Ber&uuml;cksichtigung seiner Entwicklung auf germanischem Boden. </em>M&uuml;nster, 1930.</p>
<p>Siems, Harald. &Prime;Zur Entwicklung des Kirchensasyls zwischen Sp&auml;tantike und Mittelalter.&Prime; <em>Libertas,</em> <em>Grundrechtliche und rechtsstaatliche Gew&auml;hrungen in Antike und Gegenwart. Symposion aus Anla&szlig; des 80. </em><em>Geburtstages von Franz Wieacker. </em>Egelsbach (1991): 139-186.</p>
<p>Sordi, Marta. <em>Il cristianesimo e Roma</em>. Bologna, 1965.</p>
<p>Sotinel, Claire. &Prime;Les &eacute;v&ecirc;ques italiens dans la soci&eacute;t&eacute; de l'Antiquit&eacute; tardive: l'&eacute;mergence d'une nouvelle &eacute;lite?.&Prime; <em>Le trasformazioni delle &eacute;lites in et&agrave; tardoantica. </em>Ed. Lizzi Testa, R. Roma (2006): 377-404.</p>
<p>Straus, Jean A. &Prime;Esclaves Malfaiteurs dans l'&Eacute;gypte romaine.&Prime; <em>Cahiers &Eacute;gypte Nilotique et M&eacute;diterran&eacute;enne</em>. Montpellier (2014): 23-31.</p>
<p>Traulsen, Christian. <em>Das sakrale Asyl</em> <em>in der Alten Welt. </em>Mohr Siebeck<em>,</em> 2004.</p>
<p>Thurman, William S. &ldquo;A law of Justinian concerning the right of asylum.&rdquo; <em>Transancations and proceedings of the american philological association</em> 100 (1969): 602-603.</p>
<p>Torregaray, Elena. &ldquo;Procurator.&rdquo; <em>Diccionario Akal de Antig&uuml;edad hispana</em>. Madrid (2006): 772-773.</p>
<p>Traulsen, Christian. <em>Das sakrale Asyl in der Alten Welt. Zur Schutzfunktion des heiligen von K&ouml;nig Salomo bis zum Codex Theodosianus</em>. T&uuml;bingen, 2004.</p>
<p>Trujillo Herrera, Ra&uacute;l. <em>La Uni&oacute;n Europea y el derecho de asilo</em>. Madrid, 2003.</p>
<p>Vismara, Giulio. &ldquo;Diritto di Asilo, II: diritto intermedio.&rdquo; <em>ED</em> 3 (1958): 191-197.</p>
<p>Wallon, Henri. <em>Du droit d&rsquo;asyle. </em>Paris, 1837.</p>
<p>Waltzing, Jean Pierre. <em>&Eacute;tude historique sur les corporations profesionnelles chez les romains depuis les origines jusqu'&agrave; la chute de l'Empire d'Occident. Tome II: Les coll&egrave;ges professionels consid&eacute;r&eacute;s comme institutions officielles</em>. Louvain, 1896.</p>
<p>Wenger, Leopold. &Prime;Asylrecht.&Prime; <em>RAC</em> 1 (1950): 836-844.</p>
<p>Wenger, Leopold. &Prime;<em>Oroi asylias.</em>&Prime; <em>Philologus 86</em> (1931): 427-454.</p>
<p>Wissmann, Hans. &Prime;Asylrecht I. Religionsgeschichtlich.&Prime; <em>TRE </em>4 (1979): 315-318.</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
</body>
</html>

Downloads

Published

2018-09-05

How to Cite

Mentxaka, R. (2018). The right of asylum in Christian churches on the basis of some imperial constitutions of the 4th and 5th century. Revista De Investigación De La Cátedra Internacional Conjunta Inocencio III, 1(7), 171–264. Retrieved from https://vergentis.ucam.edu/index.php/vergentis/article/view/91