The Talion Law is an essential reference point since it is based on the principle of “proportionality” between crime and punishment. The originality of the Old Testament is to unite the requirements of the Law and the mercy of God. In the New Testament, the presence of sinners is not associated with condemnation or
punishment, but with forgiveness, which is embodied in the practice of penance. The idea that any punishment must aim at the moral improvement of the culprit is present in the two most significant penalties of canon law, two punishments present in current law, even though over the centuries they have known a profound evolution. Christian novelty consists in a person, Christ reconciling. For the Christian, reconciliation is the result of a fertilized life transformed by the practice of prayer and sacraments, especially Penance and Eucharist, source of divine life.


Keywords: Law of Talion; forgiveness; mercy; Saint Thomas Aquinas; penance.