The establishment of the College of Cardinals between the eleventh and the thirteenth century

Authors

  • Anna Sammassimo Catholic University of the Sacred Heart of Milan (Italy)

Keywords:

cardinals, college of cardinals, consistories, election of the Pontiff

Abstract

Between the eleventh and the thirteenth century the cardinals become electors of the Pope and participate in the supreme power in the universal Church. They contribute significantly to the success of papal primacy and plenitudo potestatis of the Bishop of Rome as well as to the freedom of the Church. Innocent III convenes consistories three times a week and confirm the important role of the cardinals.

 

Keywords: cardinals; college of cardinals; consistories; election of the Pontiff.

References

<p>Alberigo, Giuseppe. &ldquo;Il cardinalato in una decretale di Innocenzo III.&rdquo; <em>Studi in onore di Alberto Pincherle</em>. Roma (1967): 38-52.</p>
<p>Alberigo, Giuseppe. &ldquo;Le origini della dottrina sullo ius divinum del cardinalato (1053-1087).&rdquo;<em> Reformata Reformanda. Festgabe f&uuml;r Hubert Jedin zum 17. Juni. 1965</em>. I. M&uuml;nster, 1965.</p>
<p>Alberigo, Giuseppe. &ldquo;Piramide di potere o forma collegiale di governo.&rdquo; <em>Crisi del potere nella Chiesa e risveglio comunitario</em>.Verona, 1969.</p>
<p>Alberigo, Giuseppe. &ldquo;Regime sinodale e Chiesa romana tra l&rsquo;XI e il XII secolo&rdquo;. <em>Le istituzioni ecclesiastiche della &ldquo;societas christiana&rdquo; dei secoli XI-XII. Papato, cardinalato ed episcopato</em>. Milano, 1974.</p>
<p>Alberigo, Giuseppe. <em>Cardinalato e collegialit&agrave;. Studi sull&rsquo;ecclesiologia tra l&rsquo;XI ed il XIV secolo</em>. Firenze, 1969</p>
<p>Andrieu, Michel. &rdquo;L'origine du titre de cardinal.&rdquo; <em>Miscellanea Mercati</em>. Vol. V. Citt&agrave; del Vaticano (1946)&nbsp;: 113-144.</p>
<p>Berton, Charles<em>. Dictionnaire des cardinaux: contenant des notions g&eacute;n&eacute;rales sur le cardinalat</em>. Westmead, 1857.</p>
<p>Ciprotti, Pio. &ldquo;Cardinali.&rdquo; <em>Enciclopedia del diritto</em>. Milano, Giuffr&egrave; VI (1960).</p>
<p>Ciprotti, Pio. &ldquo;Conclave.&rdquo; <em>Enc. del Dir</em>. VIII (1961).</p>
<p>Congar, Yves. &ldquo;Notes sur le destin de l'id&eacute;e de coll&eacute;gialit&eacute; &eacute;piscopale en Occidente au Moyen &Eacute;ige (VIIe-XVIe si&egrave;cles).&rdquo;&nbsp; <em>La Collegialit&eacute; &eacute;piscopale. Histoire et th&eacute;ologie</em> (<em>Unam Sanctam</em>, 52). Paris, 1965.</p>
<p>Feliciani, Giorgio. &ldquo;Cardinali.&rdquo; <em>Digesto delle Discipline Pubblicistiche</em>. Torino II (1987).</p>
<p>Ferraris, Lucius. &ldquo;Cardinales.&rdquo; <em>Prompta biblitheca canonica, juridica ecc. </em>Genuae, 1767.</p>
<p>Fliche, Augustin<em>. La r&eacute;forme gr&eacute;gorienne</em>. Vol.1. Louvain-Paris, 1924.</p>
<p>Fois, Mario. "I compiti e le prerogative dei cardinali vescovi secondo Pier Damiani nel quadro della sua ecclesiologia primaziale." <em>Archivum Historiae Pontificiae</em> (1972).</p>
<p>Fois, Mario. "Papa e Cardinali nel secolo XI: Una questione di metodo ed una replica." <em>Archivum Historiae Pontificiae</em> (1976): 383-416.</p>
<p>Forget, Jean. &ldquo;Cardinau<em>x.&rdquo; Dictionnaire de th&eacute;ologie catholique</em>. Vol. II.&nbsp; Parigi, 1910.</p>
<p>F&uuml;rst, Carl Gerold. &ldquo;I cardinalati non romani.&rdquo; <em>Le istituzioni ecclesiastiche della &laquo;societas cristiana&raquo; dei secoli XI-XII. Papato, cardinalato ed episcopato</em>. Milano, 1974.</p>
<p>F&uuml;rst, Carl Gerold. <em>Cardinalis. Prolegomena zu einer Rechtsgeschichte des r&ouml;mischen Kardinalskollegiums</em>. M&uuml;nchen, 1967.</p>
<p>Grison, Roberto. "Il problema del cardinalato nell'Ostiense." <em>Archivum historiae pontificiae</em> <em>30 </em>(1992): 125-157.</p>
<p>Hofmann, Herbert. <em>Kardinalat und kuriale Politik in der ersten H&auml;lfte des 14</em>. Leipzig, 1935.</p>
<p>Kuttner, Stephan. "Cardinalis: the history of a canonical concept." <em>Traditio 3</em> (1945): 129-214.</p>
<p>Le bras, Gabriel. &ldquo;Institutions eccl&eacute;siastiques de la chr&eacute;tient&eacute; m&eacute;di&eacute;vale.&rdquo; <em>Histoire de l&rsquo;&Eacute;glise depuis les origines jusqu&rsquo;&agrave; nos jours</em>. Fliche, A., Martin V. Ed. Vol. XII. Parigi (1964): 50-55.</p>
<p>Lecler, Joseph. &ldquo;Pars corporis papae... le sacr&eacute; coll&egrave;ge dans l'eccl&eacute;siologie m&eacute;di&eacute;vale.&rdquo;<em> L'homme devant Dieu. M&eacute;langes offerts au p&egrave;re Henri De Lubac</em>, II, <em>Du Moyen Age au si&egrave;cle des lumier&egrave;s</em>. Paris (1964)&nbsp;: 169-182.</p>
<p>Lefebvre, Charles. "Les origines et le r&ocirc;le du cardinalat au Moyen &Acirc;ge." <em>Apollinaris</em> 41 (1968): 59-70.</p>
<p>Lefebvre, Charles.&nbsp; &ldquo;La hi&eacute;rarchie, la paupet&eacute;, les auxiliaires immediats du pape.&ldquo; <em>Histoire du droit et des institutions de l&rsquo;&eacute;glise en occident</em>.Vol. XVI. Paris, 1981.</p>
<p>Maccarrone, Michele, ed. <em>Chiesa e Stato nella dottrina di Papa Innocenzo III.</em> Fac. Theolog. Pontif. Athenaei Lateranensis, 1940.</p>
<p>Molien, Auguste. &ldquo;Cardinal.&rdquo; <em>Dictionnaire de Droit canonique</em>. Paris XII (1937).</p>
<p>Molien, Auguste. &ldquo;Conclave.&rdquo; <em>DDC </em>13 (1942).</p>
<p>Muratori, Lodovico Antonio. &ldquo;De Cardinalium institutione.&rdquo; <em>Ant. Ital. M. E</em>. Mediolani, 1741.</p>
<p>Olivero, Gerald. &ldquo;Collegio dei cardinali.&rdquo;<em> Nuovissimo Digesto Italiano</em>. Vol. II. Torino, 1981.</p>
<p>Olivero, Gerald. &ldquo;Cardinali.&rdquo; <em>Nuovissimo Digesto Italiano</em>. Torino II (1958).</p>
<p>Orlandis, Jos&eacute;<em>. Historia de las instituciones de la Iglesia Cat&oacute;lica</em>. Pamplona, 2003.</p>
<p>Pasztor, Edith. "San Pier Damiani, il cardinalato e la formazione della Curia Romana." <em>Onus Apostolicae Sedis. Curia romana e cardinalato nei secoli XI-XV</em>. Roma, 1999.</p>
<p>P&aacute;sztor, Edith. "Funzione politico-culturale di una struttura della Chiesa: il cardinalato."&nbsp; <em>Onus Apostolicae Sedis. Curia romana e cardinalato nei secoli XI-XV</em>. Roma, 1999.</p>
<p>Rahner, Hugo<em>. Chiesa e struttura politica nel cristianesimo primitivo</em>. Milano, 1979.</p>
<p>Rivi&egrave;re, Jean. "In partem sollicitudinis. Evolution d'une formule pontificale." <em>Revue des sciences religieuses</em> 5.2 (1925).</p>
<p>S&auml;gm&uuml;ller, Johannes Baptist<em>. Lehrbuch des katholischen Kirchenrechts</em>. I (1934).</p>
<p>Sammassimo, Anna. "De iure condendo: una lex propria per il collegio cardinalizio?." <em>Jus Maggio</em> (2013): 285-329.</p>
<p>Sammassimo, Anna. <em>Cardinalato e collegialit&agrave;: Codifi cazione del XX secolo.</em>&nbsp; Milano, 2012 .</p>
<p>Scaduto, Francesco. &ldquo;Sacro Collegio.&rdquo; <em>Digesto Italiano</em>. Torino XXI/1 (1927).</p>
<p>Sobanski, Remigiusz. "II concilio ecumenico-il sinodo dei vescovi-il collegio cardinalizio." <em>Collegialit&auml; e primato</em>. Bologna, 1993.</p>
<p>Sutterlin, Berthold. <em>Die Politik Kaiser Friedichs II und die r&ouml;m. Kardinale in den J. 1239-1250</em>. Heidelberg, 1929.</p>
<p>Tierney, Brian. "A conciliar theory of the thirteenth century."&nbsp;<em>The Catholic Historical Review</em>&nbsp;36.4 (1951): 415-440.</p>
<p>Tierney, Brian. "Hostiensis and Collegiality." Stephan Kuttner (Hg.): <em>Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress of Medieval Canon Law</em>. Citt&agrave; del Vaticano, 1976.</p>
<p>Tierney, Brian. <em>Church law and constitutional thought in the Middle Ages</em>. Vol. 90. Variorum, 1979.</p>
<p>Tierny, Brian. "Fondations of the Conciliar Theory: The Contributions of the medieval Canonists from Gratian to the Great Schism." Cambridge, 1955.</p>
<p>Watt, James A. "Hostiensis on Per venerabilem: the role of the College of Cardinals." <em>Authority and Power. Studies on medieval Law and Government presented to Walter Ullmann on his 70th Birthday, London et al</em> (1980): 99-113.</p>
<p>Watt, John A. "The Constitutional Law of the College of Cardinals: Hostiensis to Joannes Andreae." <em>Mediaeval Studies</em> 33 (1971): 127-157.</p>
<p>Watt, John A. <em>The theory of papal monarchy in the thirteenth century: the contribution of the canonists</em>. London, 1965.</p>
<p>Watt, John A. "The Use of the Term &sbquo;plenitudo potestatis&rsquo; by Hostiensis." <em>Proceedings of the Second International Congress of Medieval Canon Law</em>. Citt&agrave; del Vaticano, 1965.</p>
<p>Wernz, Francisco Xav SJ. <em>Ius decretalium ad usum praelectionum in scholis textus canonici sive iuris decretalium</em>. Prati ,1915</p>
<p>Wolter, Hans, and Beck, Georg. <em>Civitas Medievale: la scolastica, gli ordini mendicanti</em> (12-14 sec.). Milano, 1993.</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>

Downloads

Published

2016-10-30

How to Cite

Sammassimo, A. (2016). The establishment of the College of Cardinals between the eleventh and the thirteenth century. Revista De Investigación De La Cátedra Internacional Conjunta Inocencio III, 1(3), 79–100. Retrieved from https://vergentis.ucam.edu/index.php/vergentis/article/view/29

Similar Articles

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.